software testing course in Hyderabad

Software Testing

Introduction

Software testing is a critical phase in the software development lifecycle (SDLC). It involves evaluating a software application to ensure it meets specified requirements and is free of defects. The primary objective of software testing is to identify errors, gaps, or missing requirements contrary to the actual requirements.

Types of Software Testing

  1. Manual Testing:
    • Test cases are executed manually by testers without using any automated tools.
    • Useful for exploratory, usability, and ad-hoc testing.
    • Involves a significant amount of time and resources.
  2. Automated Testing:
    • Uses specialized tools and scripts to execute test cases.
    • Essential for regression, performance, and load testing.
    • Increases efficiency and repeatability but requires an initial investment in tools and training.

Levels of Testing

  1. Unit Testing:
    • Focuses on individual units or components of the software.
    • Ensures that each unit performs as expected.
    • Typically performed by developers during the development phase.
  2. Integration Testing:
    • Tests the interactions between integrated units/modules.
    • Identifies issues in the interfaces and interactions between modules.
    • Can be top-down, bottom-up, or a hybrid approach.
  3. System Testing:
    • Validates the complete and integrated software product.
    • Ensures the system meets the specified requirements.
    • Performed in an environment that closely resembles the production environment.
  4. Acceptance Testing:
    • Conducted to determine if the system meets the business requirements.
    • Performed by the end-users or clients.
    • Types include User Acceptance Testing (UAT), Operational Acceptance Testing (OAT), and Contract Acceptance Testing (CAT).

Testing Methods

  1. White Box Testing:
    • Also known as clear box or glass box testing.
    • Based on the internal workings of the application.
    • Involves testing internal structures or workings of an application.
    • Examples: Unit testing, integration testing.
  2. Black Box Testing:
    • Focuses on the functionality of the application without knowing its internal structures.
    • Based on requirements and specifications.
    • Examples: Functional testing, system testing.
  3. Gray Box Testing:
    • Combination of white box and black box testing.
    • Testers have partial knowledge of the internal workings of the application.
    • Useful for security testing and integration testing.

Common Testing Techniques

  1. Functional Testing:
    • Verifies that each function of the software operates in conformance with the requirement specification.
    • Includes unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing.
  2. Non-Functional Testing:
    • Focuses on the non-functional aspects such as performance, usability, reliability, etc.
    • Examples: Performance testing, load testing, security testing, compatibility testing.
  3. Regression Testing:
    • Ensures that new code changes do not adversely affect the existing functionality.
    • Typically automated due to the repetitive nature of the tests.
  4. Smoke Testing:
    • Preliminary testing to reveal simple failures severe enough to reject a prospective software release.
    • Also known as “build verification testing.”
  5. Sanity Testing:
    • Performed after receiving a software build to check the functionalities and ensure they are working as expected.
    • Narrow and deep approach focusing on one or a few areas of functionality.
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Testing Tools

  1. Selenium:
    • Open-source tool for automating web applications.
    • Supports multiple browsers and platforms.
  2. JUnit:
    • Framework for unit testing in Java.
    • Provides annotations to identify test methods and supports test fixtures.
  3. LoadRunner:
    • Performance testing tool by Micro Focus.
    • Simulates virtual users to load test applications.
  4. JIRA:
    • Popular issue and project tracking tool.
    • Supports agile methodologies and integrates with various CI/CD tools.
  5. TestRail:
    • Test case management tool.
    • Helps in organizing and tracking test cases and results.

Best Practices in Software Testing

  1. Early Testing:
    • Begin testing as early as possible in the development lifecycle.
    • Detect defects early to reduce the cost and effort of fixing them.
  2. Clear Requirements:
    • Ensure requirements are clear, complete, and testable.
    • Prevents ambiguity and misinterpretation during testing.
  3. Test Planning:
    • Develop a comprehensive test plan outlining the scope, objectives, resources, and schedule of testing activities.
  4. Test Automation:
    • Automate repetitive and time-consuming tests to increase efficiency and coverage.
    • Focus on automating high-value and stable test cases.
  5. Continuous Integration and Continuous Testing:
    • Integrate code changes frequently and test them continuously.
    • Detects integration issues early and ensures a stable build.
  6. Regular Review and Maintenance:
    • Regularly review and update test cases to reflect changes in requirements.
    • Maintain automated test scripts to ensure they remain effective.
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